Beyond the Backyard – Natural & Man-made Water Features & Ponds Located in Colorado

Beyond the Backyard 2014
Directions

Berkeley Lake
4601 W. 46th Avenue, Denver

Exit I-70 at Sheridan Blvd. Travel south to 46th Ave. Turn left/east and pull into the parking lot.

Majestic View Park and Nature Center
7030 Garrison St, Arvada

Take I-70 to Kipling St.  Drive north on Kipling Street, which turns into Ralston Road. Follow Ralston Road west to Oak Street.  Turn north on Oak Street to 66th Avenue.  Turn east on 66th Avenue to Garrison Street.  Go north on Garrison Street and follow signs to Majestic View Park and Nature Center.

Reflections Community Water Gardens
W. Bowles Avenue & S. Kipling Street, Littleton

From Bowles Avenue (between Simms Street and Kipling Street near Jared’s Nursery) go north on S. Lewis Street to W. Ida Avenue, turn east.  Ponds are on both sides of W. Ida Avenue and S. Kline Street.

McColley Water Gardens
15555 west 67th Avenue, Arvada

Take I-70 to Ward Road.  Drive north on Ward Road and turn west on 64th Avenue.  Turn north on McIntyre Street (just past Kendrick Drive/McIntyre Parkway across from Kohl’s).  McIntyre Street becomes 67th Avenue.  Take 67th Avenue east and look for  the McColley Water Gardens sign at Lupine Circle.

Fox Hollow Golf Course
13410 Morrison Road, Lakewood

Take US Highway 285 (W. Hampden Avenue) to S. Kipling Parkway.  Travel north to Morrison Road (State Highway 8).  Turn west on Morrison Road and go about ½ mile to S. Owens Lane and turn south on S. Owens Lane.  Turn west on Fox Hollow Lane and follow the signs to Fox Hollow Golf Course.

Hudson Gardens
6115 South Santa Fe Drive, Littleton

From US Hightway 285 (W. Hampden Avenue), take S. Sante Fe Drive south past W. Bowels Avenue.  Hudson Gardens is located on S. Sante Fe Drive between W. Bowles Avenue and W. Mineral Avenue on the east side of S. Sante Fe Drive across from Arapahoe Community College.

University of Denver Water Gardens and Arboretum
2199 S. University Blvd., Denver

Take I-25 to University Blvd.  Turn south onto University Blvd. to E. Iliff Avenue.  Turn west on E. Iliff Avenue.  One place to park is Pay Parking lot 304, just north of E. Iliff Avenue between S. York Street and S. Race Street.  Walk north to the Chester M. Alter Pavilion between Cherrington Hall and the Mary Reed Building.  The arboretum throughout all of the buildings.


Colorado Springs

Union Printers Home
101 South Union Blvd., Colorado Springs

Take I-25 south to Exit 145, Fillmore Street.  Turn East on Fillmore Street to Union Blvd.  Turn south on Union Blvd. about 3 miles.  Just past Pikes Peak Avenue, turn east onto S. Parkside Drive and follow the signs to the Union Printers Home.


Brainard Lake Recreation Area
Ward

Starting from Ward, take Highway 72 north a very short distance.  Turn west on Brainard Lake Road and look for the sign to Brainard Lake Recreation Area.  The area is west of  the highway.  There is an entrance fee of $10, but a National Parks Pass works.

Estes Park

Nameless Pond near the Stanley Hotel
From the intersection of Saint Vrain Avenue/Highway 7 and Elkhorn Avenue/Big Thompson Avenue/Highway 34, travel northeast on Elkhorn Avenue (Highway 34) past the Visitor Center to Steamer Drive.  Turn left/west on Steamer Drive.  The road curves and you will come to Steamer Parkway.  The pond is located to the right,  look down.

Rocky Mountain National Park
At the entrance station obtain a map of the park, locate Lake Irene (off Trail Ridge Road), Nymph Lake, Cub Lake, and Lily Lake.


Steamboat Springs

Casey’s Pond
Driving north on US Highway 40 (S. Lincoln Avenue), go through the first traffic light. Turn east/right on Walton Creek Road and take a quick left to Casey’s Pond.

Continue northwest on US Highway 40 (S. Lincoln Avenue) to the Visitor Information Center at 125 Anglers Drive.  Turn left on Anglers Drive.  Look for the Visitor Information Center sign.  Obtain a City map.

Yampa River Botanic Park
Take US Highway 40 (S. Lincoln Blvd) north to Trafalgar Drive/Hillside Parkway. Turn west/left on Trafalgar Drive to Pamela Lane.  Turn south/left on Pamela Lane and look for the sign to Yampa River Botanic Park.

Fish Creek Falls
From US Highway 40 (S. Lincoln Blvd.) turn northeast/right onto 3rd Street to Fish Creek Falls Road.  Turn southeast/right onto Fish Creek Falls Road.  Travel on Fish Creek Falls Road for about 6 miles.  Follow the signs to Fish Creek Falls.

Buffalo Pass
From US Highway 40 (S. Lincoln Blvd.) take 7th Street northeast/right to Laurel Street. Turn north/left on Laurel Street to Park Avenue.  Turn northeast/right onto Park Avenue to N. Park Road.  Turn north/left onto N. Park Road to Strawberry Park Road.   Turn east (right) onto Strawberry Park Road (Road 36). Road will turn northward.  Continue on Road 36 to Road 38.  Turn east (right) onto Road 38/Forest Service Road 60.  Continue on Road 38/60 to Buffalo Pass.  Follow the sign to Buffalo Pass

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Various Filtration Methods (Material Courtesy of Bob Hoffman, President, CWGS)

On The Waterfront

PLANTS  & CLEAR WATER . . .
by Richard “Dick” Shuck
The 10% Solution©

Is your pond green and dirty?  Do you find yourself telling friends and  neighbors that ‘everybody’s pond looks like that’?  Would you appreciate a simple and quick way to clear it and clean it at the same time?  If the answer  to any of the above questions  is YES!, read on:  I’ve got the answer for you.

Clearing and cleaning a pond is not as difficult as many people believe.  In fact, the long, com­plicated formulas and equations you often read in garden and aquarium  magazines aren’t re­ally necessary.  All  you really need to know is the 10% solution.  Here’s how it works:

Construct a plants basin near your pond with an equivalent to 10% of the surface area of your pond.  Fill this basin with water plants and recirculate your pond’s water through it every two to four  hours.  Within a few short weeks your water will be clear, and your pond will be clean.  This is because your plants basin has si­multaneously consumed the “pea soup” caus­ing nutrients in your pond and removed the solid waste particles from your water via settling and root filtering.  Thus, your plants basin has be­ come a natural filter.

Depending upon the size of  your pond, this natural filter can be as small as a half whiskey barrel or as large as another small pond.  A pond that is 20 sq.ft. in size would require a 2 sq. ft. filter:  a pond 400 sq. ft. in size would require a 40 sq. ft. plants filter.  Larger filters can be constructed using 2 x 8 or 2 x 10 pressure treated lumber and a rubber or other flexible liner.  The filter should be 12″ to 18″ deep and equipped with an overflow so it can act as a settling cham­ber for solid waste removed from your pond.  The pond water should enter the filter at a point furthest from the overflow to maximize the dis­tance of water flow thereby allowing the great­est settlement of solids.  (A narrow shaped natu­ral filter is more effective than a round or oval shape.)

Almost any water plants will do well, but some of my favorites are:  Hardy Plants–yellow wa­ter iris, water mint, water celery, cattails, and lotus; Tropical  Plants–water hyacinth, water lettuce, giant or Egyptian papyrus, and umbrella palm.  Through trial and error, I’ve found all of these to work quite effectively in a natural fil­ter.  ln late fall, remove plants that have died and  strip leaves from hardy and perennial plants.  Clean your filter in late fall or early spring for the coming year.

Besides filtering out solids and clearing green water, your natural filter is an excellent biological filter as the plant roots pro­vide abundant surface area for nitri­fying bacteria.  When the plants are dormant (early spring and late fall), your pond water may “green up”.  Once the dormant spell is broken, however, rapid clearing will occur.  During dormant periods, it is extremely important to con­tinue using a mechanical foam filter to assure continued biological filtration.

One last thing:  The plants in your natural or plants filter will generally be healthier and many times larger than the plants in your pond.  This is because the plants in your filter get a constant flush of nutrients from the recirculat­ing pond water.  As you’re probably aware, this is the basis of hydroponic gardening.  And your plants filter will prove to be a testament to this progressive gardening system.

About the Writer:
Richard “Dick” Schuck is the owner and founder of Maryland Aquatic Nurseries, Ind. located at 3427 N. Furnace Road, Jarrettsville, MD.

They are growers of a wide variety of aquatic plants as well as designers and manufacturers of many water gardening products.  Chief among these products are pond filters, patio pool gardens, indoor water gardens, bird bath fountains, and new–habitat gardens for reptiles and am­phibians.

Surface Area of Natural Filter = 10% of Surface Area of Pond
Water Flow/hr. = 1/2 to 1/4 of Pond volume, Depth of Natural Filter = 10″ to 18″

Source:  PONDKEEPER, January/February 1996, Page 10

FILTRATION
by Stan Ranson

Host ponds have been built as part of the general landscaping when it was considered a nice idea to have the sound of water in the background.  Later on, some goldfish were added to give the pond some life and some plants installed to try and clear up the water so it wasn’t so green.   When those beautiful Koi were discovered they just had to go in the pond but now . . . suddenly . . .  when there were brightly colored fish to look at they cou1d not be seen.  The green water became a major problem.  How can it be cured?

What you need is a filter.  But, you say, you already have one, it did well on a swimming pool, why  won’t it do the same thing on a  fish pond.  First of all, in a swimming pool you put lots of chlorine to help kill the green stuff  (algae, pronounced algee) and the water you put through the filter has very little in the way of solids in it.  Even so, you have to back-flush  that pool filter quite often otherwise the water will not go through it.  Just imagine unchlorinated water that has been used as a restaurant by a number of fish and a subsequent garbage can for un-eaten food and finally bathroom for those same fish.  Lots of crud, right.  That filter would soon get well and truly plugged and you would also need a high pow­ered  pump to push the water through.  That high power would show up on your electric bill as many dollars per month to run.  To operate a fish  pond and especially Koi, you need  to run the pump 24 hours a day and 365 days a year so you want the most economic pump you can get.

The type of filter needed for a fish pond is called a biological filter.  This will take the
wastes from the fish and process them naturally to produce a clean water return that will not endang­er the fish.  This is done through micro organisms that develop in the filter and they consume the ammonia produced by the fish and change it to nitrite and then nitrate.  Nitrate is needed by the fish and also by a very small growth of algae on the sides of the pond.  The fish eat this algae along with their other food and produce more ammonia which is processed again by the filter.

The biological filter can be built as either an ‘upflow’ or a ‘downflouw”.  The upflow is built outside the pond and the downflow inside the pond.  The trend is towards the upflow filter as it is a little easier to maintain and can be added easily to an existing pond.  The size is governed by the size of the pond.  Usually the filter is about 10% to 15% of the pond’s gallonage, although this depends on exposure to sun and depth of  pond.  For ponds up to 2,000 gallons, easily built barrel filters can be used.  Above 2,000  gallons you might want to consider a more permanent structure made out of concrete blocks.  Whether it is small or large the biological filter is always built the same way, you just need more materials if it is larger.

The philosophy of an upflow biological filter is:

a.  The water is pumped from the pond into the center pipe and air is induced by letting it fall on a dozen or so plastic hair curlers.

b.  The water reaches the bottom of the container and then percolates up through a support grid and three different grades of crushed rocks and sand.  The bacteria build their cells in the rocks and consume the ammonia laden debris as it passes by.

c.  The processed water at the top of the container is returned to the pond by a plastic pipe through the side.  This water can drop over a waterfall and thus induce oxygen into the pond which is a major requirement of the fish.

Maintenance of the filter is minimal but must be done periodically.

Daily . . . The heavier wastes from the pond are collected in an area at the bottom of the container under the grid.  If left in the container they would generate the breeding of an anaerobic bact­eria which would turn that debris into a foul smelling black goop.  A drain must be provided that can be opened daily and a few gallons of water let out.  This gets rid of the daily accumulation of material and also removes water from the pond.

Weekly . . . Clean out this area by attaching a hose to the water clean line in the container and open the bottom drain.  The water clean line should rotate so that water is jetted into the nooks and crannies in the bottom area.  The water removed from the pond during the week can be made up by spraying tap water into the pond.  Use a spray and this will reduce the chlorine in the water.  lf you have chloramines in your tap water then test for them prior to filling the pond.  If they are present you should use an ammonia reducer to eliminate most of them.

Major maintenance . . . About every 4 to 6 months the filter will start to clog up with dead cells from the friendly bacteria who have been doing all this work for us.  The water will not pass as readily through the media as before and so the flow will be reduced.  The air network is a network of 1/2 inch plastic pipe with a vertical pipe that is long enough to protrude above the water level in the container.  The net­work is glued together and consists of elbows, tees, and pipes that cover the grid area in the container.  Holes of 1/16 inch diameter about 2 inches apart are drilled in this network.  If air is induced into the vertical pipe it will come out of these small holes under all the media and send bubbles up to the top of the container.  These bubbles will bring with them a lot of the dead cells and other debris from within the gravel.  If the top of the container has a return line to the pond and also another outlet that is temporarily plugged, then the plug can be placed in the pond return and the dirty water from the cleaning chan­neled out of the second port.  Don’t over clean as you don’t want to lose all of the good bacteria that are making the filter work.  When the water in the top of the container is reasonably clean then open up the pond return and close up the other outlet and the filter is set for another 4 to 6 months.

For information on this or the downflow fil­ter please contact the author or the Ventura County Koi Society.

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Hydroponic Media For Water Plants, by Ken Burkert, Spring 2012

Reference:  Greg Speichert & Sue Speichert, Encyclopedia of Water Garden Plants, 2004, Timber Press, Page 17.

The above authors referred to the use of generic cat litter as a form of hydroponic planting media. The idea fit my situation well, and I have had very good success with water lilies and marginals. Blooms have been good, and I have shared many vigorous rhizomes with Society members, DBG, the Denver Zoo, and neighbors.

My Situation

  1. I use ceramic and plastic containers, or tubs, so that my water garden enhances my wife’s terrestrial garden. Containers are easy to maintain, and minimize usage of water and electricity.
  2. Without a deep pond, plants must be brought inside for the winter. Garden space, and indoor storage space, is limited.
  3. I would have had to buy heavy soil. Taking it from the lawn or my wife’s garden would have been a problem.
  4. Each fall, I strip the leaves and roots from each rhizome as if I was dividing the plant. The rhizomes are then stored in small sealed plastic storage boxes with damp sand. The sand supports the rhizome to prevent breakage, and keeps the rhizome damp and above the water (the sand and boxes are dried and reused each year). The boxes are labeled and stored in an attached garage where it is dark and doesn’t freeze. The storage technique allows me to have many different plants without huge storage space requirements, and gives me plenty of rhizomes to share.

Hydroponic Media

I have only tried the type that resembles cat litter because of the above reference.

Disadvantages

  1. It can be expensive when starting out. However, it is reusable year after year. In the fall, I sift out the organic matter, debris and clay binder (from the fertilizer tabs), dry the media in the sun and store it in a dry place. I also purchased the media over time as I added new plants.
  2. It can “get everywhere”. Minimize spillage by working inside buckets, containers, on trays or hard surfaces. Picking it out of grass or gravel is impossible.

Advantages

  1. The media does not clump. When cleaning the rhizome in the fall, the media falls off of the roots when immersed in water. I simply work the rhizome roots with my hands as I am trimming.
  2. The media does not float after being wetted, although some of the media will float until it becomes wet. When planting, I plant the rhizome the same way as with clay soil, then wet the media from above before placing the planting pot in a container. Placing a rock on the rhizome is essential to keep the rhizome from floating.
  3. The media does not cloud the water. When dry media is poured from the bag, there is dust, but it dissolves and disappears especially after being wetted from above. I would not recommend breathing the dust.
  4. I find the media easier and cleaner to work with, in comparison to mud. I do not need to hose off the rhizome with jets of water. I am not working with mud or dried clumps of clay.
  5. The plants are as easy to fertilize in media as in mud. For lilies and marginals, I fertilize with one tab (from the Club) every two weeks.
    1. The media works well with any water plants. I use it with lilies, lotuses, Snowflakes, Water Hawthorns and marginals.
    2. In the spring, I plant the rhizomes as soon as the season appears to start, so as to give the rhizomes as much time as possible to develop their roots. I put the planted pots in buckets of water, and move the buckets of plants in and out of the house as weather permits. I may also place pots in my larger containers, or the in-ground containers.

I use planting pots with fine slits in the sides and bottom. I suspect that the slits and media allow the water and fertilizer to migrate more freely (than with clay) towards the plant roots, and from the pot into the container. Roots are always growing through the slits into the container. I use floating and submerged plants to soak up excess nutrients and control algae.

I do not know how fish will do with the media. I suspect that fish may sweep the media with their fins, or carry the media in their mouths. A layer of gravel could be used to prevent the fish from moving the media.

Sources

I have been using “Pond Care Aquatic Planting Media”. It contains zeolite to help control ammonia levels. I have had good luck using it for lilies and marginals.

I recently found a source for generic media that is sold for use on athletic fields. It is “TURFACE MVP”. See also http://www.turface.com for product information. This same product is widely used at DBG and City Park greenhouse for succulents and other plants, which is how I found out about it.

I have not found any generic cat litter, without additives, at local pet stores or supermarkets.  If you find  generic calcified clay cat litter, be certain that it is not scented, and that it does not have “clumping additives”.

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Comparing Pump Types & Pricing

Is there information on types of external pumps to use for ponds?  Swimming pool pumps are a lot cheaper than pumps specifically made for ponds.

When comparing the cost of pumps you need to compare flow rate and head capabilities, but most importantly, figure out total operating costs not just the purchase price.  In most cases, you will be money ahead, usually in the first 12 months, by purchasing an energy efficient model.  Based on energy costs of $0.08/kw-hr, a pump will cost $5.84 per month to operate for every 100 watts of power it requires.

An example would be:

Pump A (low efficiency) has a purchase price of $233.00 and uses 750 watts.  Total Year 1 cost = $233.00 + (12 months x $43.80/month) = $758.60

Pump B (high efficiency) has a purchase price of $430.00 and uses 180 watts.  Total Year 1 cost = $430.00 + (12 months x $10.51/month) = $556.12

In this example, you are money ahead after only 6 months, even though the low efficiency model was $200.00 cheaper initially.

Tim Boettcher, True Pump & Equipment, Inc., Denver, CO, 303-744-0849

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Care & Feeding of Bowl Lotus

About Bowl Lotus:  Bowl lotus are the miniature lotus of the Nelumbo family.

Handling:  Lotus tubers are shipped while in dormancy.  The tubers are very fragile and must be handled with care.  DO NOT remove any wilted or dead material from the tuber.  This will protect your lotus from unwanted water seeping in through broken areas, which can kill your lotus.  Handle the lotus tuber like it is blown glass – the growing tips must not be broken or disturbed.

Storage:  The best thing to do with the tuber is to begin breaking dormancy immediately; however, the tuber can be stored for a couple of weeks if necessary.  The tuber can be stored in a cool, dark place wrapped in damp newspaper.  Be sure the tuber does not dry out or freeze, both will kill the tuber.

Breaking Dormancy:  The tuber needs water, warmth, and sun to break out of dormancy and begin to grow.  To break dormancy:

  1. Float the tuber in a container of well-aerated water in sunlight.  Water around 70 degrees Fahrenheit leads to a higher success rate.
  2. Change the water every 3 to 7 days.
  3. When the first leaf or two opens and the growth points have developed some short roots, it is time to plant the lotus.

Planting:  Lotus can be planted in almost any sturdy container that does not have a hole.  It is recommended that the container not have an interior lip or rim.  Emerging leaves can hit the container lip, stop growing, and die.  A “good rule of thumb” for a lotus container is that the depth is half the diameter.  For example, if the pot is 6″ deep, it should have a 12″ diameter.  Shallow wide pots are best for lotus.  To plant:

  1. Lotus will grow in as little as 4″ to 6″ of soil.  Lotus will grow in any dirt, from clay to good garden dirt, or a mixture of the two; however good garden soil is recommended.  Do not fill the container with soil.  Leave at least a couple of inches at the top of the container.  Wet the soil.
  2. Place the cut end of the tuber against the side of the pot and the growing end toward the center.  Make sure the growing tips are oriented up to the sun.
  3. Make a shallow trench in the soil with your finger.
  4. Carefully, place the tuber in the shallow trench and place a small rock on the tuber.  The goal is to have the tuber in contact with the soil, not floating.  DO NOT cover the growing tips with dirt.
  5. Add 1″ to 2″ of water over the tuber.  The tuber and growing tips will be under water.
  6. Place the container in a warm, sunny location, and watch it grow.  It is important to try to maintain a constant temperature and maximize sunlight.
  7. Be patient!  Do not move the lotus outside until it is consistently warm.  If it is too cool (below 60 degrees Fahrenheit) the lotus could experience shock, which will set back growth and eliminate any chance of first year blooming.

Growth:  All lotuses need lots of full sun to grow and bloom.  For maximum growth, it is recommended to have at least 4 to 6 hours of sunlight a day.  Once the weather cooperates, put the lotus outside in full sun and enjoy.

  • Early:  The first leaves float on the surface of the water.  Once there are established leaves, fertilize the lotus.  Be careful with fertilization – these lotus are in small containers; therefore it is easy to overdo it.  A “good rule of thumb” is approximately one plant tab per square foot of surface area.  If there is more room in the container, increase the water depth a little.
  • Mature:  Arial leaves will raise 4″ to 6″ above the water surface and blooms rise above the leaves.  Fertilize ever 3 to 4 weeks.  Spray off aphids with water.  Do not apply any liquid spray bug killers to the lotus – it will kill them.  Lotus will grow, bloom, and be beautiful all summer.
  • Fall:  Blooms and leaves begin to brown and dry out in the fall.  This is the beginning of the dormancy process.  The dried seedpods are as interesting as the blooms.  Once again, DO NOT remove brown leaves and stems.  Lotus stems are hollow and it is possible for water to get in the cut stems and drown the lotus.  Do not fertilize lotus in the fall.
  • Winter:  Lotus are hardy and like many other perennials, require a dormancy period.  The lotus can be left in the container and put in a cool, protected place (like a garage or basement).  Bowl lotus act more like a Zone 6 plant rather than a Zone 5; that is why it is suggested to bring them indoors to a protected place.  Make sure there is water in the container all winter.  Lotus tubers cannot dry out or freeze.  Next April, take the container out of the garage, fill with water, and begin the process all over.

Some great lotus reference books are:

The Lotus, Know It and Grow It by Kelly Billing and Paula Biles

Water Lilies and Lotus by Perry D. Slocum

Encyclopedia of Water Garden Plants by Greg Speichert and Sue Speichert

This article was originally written by Janet Bathurst, previous Vice President of Colorado Water Garden Society with advice from Enery Water Gardens.

Enery Water Gardens, Diane Ross, 303-359-1783, Arvada, CO

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Winterizing Your Pond

Leaves and debris

  1. High concentrations of leaves will make ammonia compounds
  2. Tea colored water indicates a high concentration of leaf debris

To restore water quality

  1. Dechlorinate first
  2. Change out 10% – 20% of the water
  3. Activated charcoal filters also work to restore water quality
  4. Skimmer boxes help to filter out debris
  5. Add protective netting
  6. Remove as many leaves as possible

Plants

  1. Tropicals – throw out or try to winter over indoors
  2. Hearty varieties – Treat like perennials, cut back to about 2″ of the water surface or cut back 2″ – 12″ for marginals such as iris, rushes, and grasses
  3. Papyrus – move indoors and treat as a houseplant
  4. Parrot’s Feather – may or may not come back depending on the variety
  5. Hearty Water Lilies
  • They will die back on their own
  • Remove dead pods and blooms – to determine if a bloom is new or dead, a dead bloom will squirt water
  • Cut back stems to 2″ – 3″ above the base of the soil
  • Don’t cut back new red leaves, leave them
  • Don’t let the crown of the lily freeze – this is generally 8″ or below the water surface
  • Leave lilies in their pots

Fish

  1. Most goldfish and Koi are winter hearty
  2. Switch to a low temperature food at 50
  3. Stop feeding fish at 40
  4. To survive, fish generally need 2′ of pond depth
  5. Fish need oxygen and a proper gas exchange – to maintain a proper gas exchange, put a bubbler in front of the skimmer box to maintain an opening allowing CO2 and ammonia to dissipate

You can leave the pond running all winter or you can turn it off – if you choose to turn it off, you will need to winterize it

  1. Remove all the water from the pipes
  2. Remove, clean, and inspect the pump(s)
  3. Store the pump(s) in a frost-free location and submerge pump(s) in a bucket of water to maintain seals and gaskets
  4. Remove and store mechanical filters in a dry location
  5. Remove and clean biological filters – biological filters will need to be cleaned once per year, preferably in the spring
  6. Pressurized filters will need to be drained and stored empty

This article was taken from an excerpt of a presentation done for the Colorado Water Garden Society by BR&D Landscape on September 12, 2009.

BR&D Landscape, Bud & Debbi Kiebler, Castle Rock, Colorado, 303-660-5015

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